The other arguments on behalf of Nigerois are perhaps more accurately characterized as attempts to counter the arguments in favor of Nigerien. Notice that in English we capitalize both the Demonym and Adjectival forms of the word because they are derived from proper nouns. and pl.) Present day Niger stands on what was previously the empires of Mali and Songhai. Shiny and New 安宇's answer quotes says this: Still both [Nigerien and Nigerois] are acceptable, as long as you don't call your friend in Niamey a Nigerian. Put new text under old text. What's the fastest / most fun way to create a fork in Blender? From a web search, it appears that NY Times' last use of "Nigerois" was in 2011 - the term "Nigerien" appears in more recent articles. What do you call someone who hails from Niger? Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. It is one of the constituent states of the Niger Delta region. It's also worth pointing out that the sentence following the one from the Slate Explainer article that Mr. The capital, and largest city, is Abuja. @HotLicks: So "He comes from Niger" or "he is a citizen of Niger" might be preferable of you want to actually inform a listener where that person comes from. The high growth rate is a major source of concern for both the government and international agencies. The plural forms are usually -os and -as respectively. English Language & Usage Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for linguists, etymologists, and serious English language enthusiasts. Text alignment error in table with figure, How to find out if a preprint has been already published. The totals are 34 from the 29-year period of 1961–1989, and 63 from the 25-year period of 1990–2014. (Sometimes, the use of one or more additional words is optional.) The Web's largest and most authoritative acronyms and abbreviations resource. Negro denotes "black" in Spanish and Portuguese, derived from the Latin word niger, meaning black, which itself is probably from a Proto-Indo-European root *nek w-, "to be dark", akin to *nok w-, "night". Niger is landlocked, meaning it has no coastline. The following is a partial list of adjectival forms of place names in English and their demonymic equivalents, which denote the people or the inhabitants of these places.. Niger as an adjective may still be common, but (in a situation mirroring Nigerien as a noun versus Nigerien as an adjective) those instances tend to get lost in the forest of instances of Niger as a noun. Neither the criticism of Nigerois based on its etymological origin nor the one based on its nonuse in Niger seems especially compelling—unless we are determined to adopt a comparable test for the names we use in English for other nationalities of the world. Irishman, Scotswoman). What is the demonym for Norfolk, Virginia? In addition, several countries have a large number of sub-names for their citizens in the form of nicknames for people of certain different areas; these are usually related to something typical of the area. First, I am impressed that Merriam-Webster's online has switched from "Nigerois only" to "Nigerois and Nigerien" in the past decade. French is the official languageof … Niger covers a land area of almost 1,270,000 km (490,000 sq mi), making it the largest country in West Africa. Neighboring countries include Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Libya, Mali, and Nigeria. Second—and more compelling, to my mind—I think that the rationale for avoiding Nigerien wasn't simply that the word looks a lot like Nigerian. However, the “S” can be omitted to make them singular. Merriam-Webster's Eleventh Collegiate Dictionary (2003) lists only Nigerois, but the online version of MW's entry for Niger broadens the options to Nigerien and Nigerois: Interestingly, MW online doesn't offer Niger as an adjective form of the country Niger, whereas the New York Times instructs its writers to use only that form as an adjective. - African Country Demonyms - African Culture at BellaOnline What is the proper demonym for someone from Shreveport? One nice thing about this search data for Nigeran is that it shows what a term that truly is archaic looks like in Google Books search results: Almost all of the matches turn out to be mismatches of one kind or another. So stick with Nigerien, unless you are happy to sound archaic for the purpose of preventing confusion. There's been a substantial edit to the question since this answer was given. What is the demonym for a citizen of Niger? That reality doesn't make the latter term a living fossil, but it does suggest that the historical direction of usage is against it. In addition, the World Fact Book (1997), the New Oxford American Dictionary (2001), the New Oxford American Dictionary and Thesaurus with Language Guide (2003) offer only Nigerien as the word for the people of Niger. A Demonym is an adjective that is used to refer to a person from a particular place or nation. Deep Reinforcement Learning for General Purpose Optimization. The following is a list of adjectival and demonymic forms of countries and nations in English and their demonymic equivalents.A country adjective describes something as being from that country, for example, "Italian cuisine" is "cuisine of Italy".A country demonym denotes the people or the inhabitants of or from there, for example, "Germans" are people of or from Germany. What do you call someone who hails from Niger? Ethnonym refers to people of a particular ethnic group and demonym refers to inhabitants of a particular location—these are not one and the same. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Niger remains handicapped bi its landlocked poseetion, desert terrain, poor eddication an poverty o its fowk, lack o infrastructur, poor heal care, an environmental degradation. Often, which term to use for a person is a matter of preference and circumstance. Nigerien society reflects a great diversity drawn frae the lang independent histories o its several ethnic groups an regions an thair relatively short period livin in a single state. It’s quite confusing, though in speech you would say the former like it was French (something like nee-ZHER-iã) ... What is the demonym for a citizen of Niger? Edit Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa, bordered by Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, and Benin in the west. A demonym (/ˈdɛmənɪm/; from Ancient Greek δῆμος, dêmos, "people, tribe" and ὄνυμα, ónuma, "name") or gentilic (from Latin gentilis, "of a clan, or gens")[1] is a word that identifies a group of people (inhabitants, residents, natives) in relation to a particular place. [2] It was subsequently popularized in this sense in 1997 by Dickson in his book Labels for Locals. Learn more. Singular forms simply remove the final s or, in the case of -ese endings, are the same as the plural forms. Demonyms and ethnonyms are not to be confused with each other. It only takes a minute to sign up. The accepted word is “Nigerien”—as opposed to “Nigerian,” for someone from Nigeria. Could you say "he is a Nigerien from Niger"? Ultimately, even though I don't find any of the four asserted arguments on behalf of Nigerien particularly persuasive, I would probably use it in preference to Nigerois, for two reasons. To my surprise, the Associated Press Stylebook (2002) doesn't offer any guidance on what to call the people of different nations. As a sub-field of anthroponymy, the study of demonyms is called demonymy or demonymics. I don't believe that the Google Books evidence supports a claim that Nigerois is obsolescent or archaic, but I do think that Nigerien as a noun is gaining ground—and as an adjective it clearly enjoys a massive advantage, since the advocates of Nigerois generally don't recommend using it as an adjective at all. But while in Niger he was told that nobody uses that word and so decided to stick with Nigeriens. Dixie Wills, New World Order: Every Country on Earth, Sorted (2008) puts the case (rather obnoxiously) this way: Pub fact: For decades, the pubs, bars and discotheques of the world have resounded to the debate, often quite heated, surrounding the adjectival form of Niger. First and most impressively (see the Ngram charts posted by Niger has a population of 18,638,600 (July 2016 est.) A country adjective describes something as being from that country, for example, "Italian cuisine" is "cuisine of Italy". If you see Nigerien and you know only Nigeria as a country with a relevant-looking name, you're likely to suppose that Nigerien is a form of Nigeria. Singular forms simply remove the final 's' or, in the case of -ese endings, are the same as the plural forms. Obnoxious or not, Wills did enough research to discover that the River Niger owes it name to the Tuareg word n'eghirren (which she says means "flowing water"). The people of Niger, The adjective is Niger. Niger is a landlocked country in Western Africa. the English, the Cornish). As Vogel 612 observes, both Wikipedia and the online Oxford Learner's Dictionary endorse Nigerien. But its difference from the noun Nigerian is the term's preeminent virtue. A demonym (/ ˈ d ɛ m ə n ɪ m /; from Greek δῆμος, dêmos, "people, tribe" and όνομα, ónoma, "name") or gentilic (from Latin gentilis, "of a clan, or gens") [1]demonym (/ ˈ d ɛ m ə n ɪ m /; from Greek δῆμος, dêmos, "people, tribe" and όνομα, ónoma, … Niger is a country in western Africa.The capital is Niamey, and the official language is French.It is surrounded by Algeria and Libya to the north, Chad to the east, Nigeria and Benin to the south, and Burkina Faso and Mali to the west. The Wikipedia article on Niger and the online Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries say that the proper term is Nigerien, as Vogel612 points out below. Mr. A country demonym denotes the people or the inhabitants of or from there, for example, "Germans" are people of or from Germany. The Sahara covers most of this country, along with Mauritania. The ending -men has feminine equivalent -women (i.e. The country's predominantly Muslimpopulation of about 22 mill… This is particularly the case with Central Asian countries, where one form tends to relate to the nation and the other tends to relate to the predominant ethnic group (e.g. Talk:Demonym. Its neighbor Nigeria, with which it is occasionally confused, was under English control before it gained its independence, also in 1960; that's why the pronunciations differ so sharply. Good luck. Shiny and New 安宇's answer—it may be argued that since "the people here [in Niger]" don't use the term Nigerois, English speakers not in Niger shouldn't use it either. Other major ethnic groups include Zarma-Songhai, Tuareg, Fula, and Arab. [3] Dickson himself attributed the term to George H. Scheetz in What Do You Call a Person From...? Demonym. If you wish to break it down by US/BR differences, you can: As the question notes, different references have different opinions about the merits of Nigerien versus Nigerois. List of demonyms for states in Nigeria: | This is a list of terms which are used, or have been used in the past, to designate ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled. Over 80% of its land area lies in the Sahara Desert. To (some) North Americans, the pattern of the word Nigerois is immediately recognizable as matching that of Quebecois (a native of Quebec), so it isn't an altogether outlandish formulation. People from Earth are often called Earthlings, but all of the other Solar planetary demonyms end in -an, including other names for Earthfolk such as Terrans, Tellurians, and in Futurama, Earthicans. City name without demonym in “Belgrade journal Philosophia”, Word for the religious equivalent of 'demonym', CSS animation triggered through JS only plays every other click. Regarding the massive advantage that Nigerien enjoys in popular usage, the counterargument is that Nigerois is predominantly a noun, whereas Nigerien piles up the vast majority of its matches in a Google Books search as an adjective. There might be a subtle difference, but the listener would not recognize it unless listening very carefully. An NYT columnist who wrote an article about Nigeriens, was told by his editor that the NYT style manual prefers Nigerois to avoid confusion with Nigerians. The U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual (1984)—which gives "Nigerois (singular, plural)," though you may not be able to see anything in the online snippet view of this book—Robert Harris & American Heritage Dictionary, Secretary's Handbook (1984), Robert Grover, U.S. News & World Report Guidelines for Writers and Editors (1994), Amy Einsohn, The Copyeditor's Handbook: A Guide for Book Publishing and Corporate Communications (2000), and Patti Tasko, The Canadian Press Stylebook: A Guide for Writing and Editing (2006) likewise give only Nigerois as the name to use for the people of Niger. If Nigerians are from Nigeria, what do you call the people from Niger? Why would someone get a credit card with an annual fee? The word demonym comes from the Greek word for "populace" (δῆμος demos) with the suffix for "name" (-onym). 41. [4] The term first appeared in Names' Names: A … And fourth, referring to an October 11, 2005, "On the Ground" blog item by New York Times editorial columnist Nicholas Kristof—again cited in Mr. Second, as Slate Magazine's The Explainer (2004) argues in a commentary on Niger, the term Nigerois is "archaic": Until 1960, Niger was a colony of France, and French is still Niger' official language. Re: The Meaning Of Recently Found Word "Demonym" by smudge2079(m): 1:11pm On Oct 23, 2015; Dottore: This is a very nice post, very informative and scintillating. Also I wouldn't want to take anything from their excellent research. In cases where two or more adjectival forms are given, there is often a subtle difference in usage between the two. That hardly suggests the timeline distribution of an archaic term. When I find multiple conflicting usages, I like to see what other people are using. Don't know if that indicates a change in their style book since the edition cited above. A demonym can also be used to show the origin of something for example, “English Football” refers to football played in England. (See List of words derived from toponyms.). The following is a list of adjectival and demonymic forms of countries and nations in English and their demonymic equivalents. The Spanish and Portuguese terminations -o usually denotes the masculine and is normally changed to feminine by dropping the -o and adding -a. But The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage (1999) and Merriam-Webster’s Eleventh Collegiate Dictionary (2003) say that the proper name is Nigerois. (Previously, the term gentilic had been referenced by the Oxford English Dictionary.) But thanks to the U.S. government's yellow-cake uranium fiasco of the mid-2000s and the attention now being paid to that area of West Africa and the area just south of it, many more English-speaking readers today are aware that Niger exists; and as a result fewer people by default associate Nigerien with Nigeria than was once the case. Apparently, the answer is to aim at a noise approximating to 'Nigérien'. Angular momentum of a purely rotating body about any axis. Does having no exit record from the UK on my passport risk my visa application for re entering? The more frequently people use and recognize Nigerien as a noun or as an adjective associated with Niger and not Nigeria, however, the less reason anyone has to adhere to Nigerois. Of the 27 matches from the period 1985–1987 in a Google Books search for Nigeran, 18 were to the polymer, and 9 were (arguably) to the adjective form of Niger. Why am I seeing unicast packets from a machine on another VLAN? Old-schoolers (and, in what an editor there called "something of an oversight," the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary) still use the archaic "Nigerois" (nee-zher-WAH); more common and up-to-date is "Nigerien" (nee-ZHER-yen). In addition, the World Fact Book (1997), the New Oxford American Dictionary (2001), the New Oxford American Dictionary and Thesaurus with Language Guide (2003) offer … A slate.com article which claims to have verified its facts with the Nigerien Embassay in the US says. The English Wikipedia page lists Nigerien (/niːˈʒɛəriən/). As for the assertion that Nigerois is archaic, it's worth noting that the majority of the 97 Google Books search matches for Nigerois are from the the period between 1990 and 2014. The strongest argument in favor of Nigerois—and undoubtedly the reason that U.S. periodicals like U.S. News & World Report and the New York Times adopted the term—is that it puts maximum distance between the names for the people of Niger and the people of Nigeria. I say "arguably" because three of the latter group appear in publications titled Nigerian Economy: A Textbook of Applied Economics (1986), Equity and Trusts in Nigeria (1986), and Nigerian Journal of Palms and Oil Seeds (1987)—and in each case, the book contained only one match for Nigeran, suggesting that these instances might have involved typos for Nigerian. Third, according to a fairly detailed Wikipedia user page posted by User:A12n, Nigerois is a made-up term with no historical legitimacy other than the fact that some people have used it: Nigerois is a coined term of French construction that is not actually a word in the French language, but has had some use in English to refer to people from Niger, West Africa. Please note that general references disagree about the correct answer to this question. The oldest instance is exceedingly old—from U.S. Department of Defense, Africa Names and Concepts (1961)—but only a handful of others come from the 1960s. Demonym for a Niger resident: Nigerien Population: 1,291,848 (Niamey) at July 16, 2020 Density: 13,983 people per square mile (5,398 per square kilometer) Population: 24,248,100 (Niger) at July 16, 2020 Density: 49 people per square mile (19 per square kilometer) Median age for all Niger: 15.2 years old There is the unfortunate fact that "Nigerien" is essentially indistinguishable from "Nigerian" when spoken. Also noted that Canada's TERMIUM lexicon (FR & EN) demoted Nigerois in English to "obsolete" in 2013 (it does not appear in French). demonym definition: 1. a word that is a name for someone who comes from a particular place: 2. a word that is a name…. Demonym. rev 2021.1.8.38287, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top, English Language & Usage Stack Exchange works best with JavaScript enabled, Start here for a quick overview of the site, Detailed answers to any questions you might have, Discuss the workings and policies of this site, Learn more about Stack Overflow the company, Learn more about hiring developers or posting ads with us. If China was disbanded today and a dozen new states sprung up, we'd need names for each of them, and I bet their local names would go a long way towards determining what our new words would be. And Merriam-Webster online now lists both Nigerien and Nigerois as correct forms. I am aware of four arguments that others have made for preferring Nigerien to Nigerois. So can those ending in -ch / -tch (e.g. Niger is bordered by Libya to the northeast, Chad to the east, Nigeria to the south, Benin to the southwest, Mali to the northwest, Burkina Faso to the southwest, and Algeria to the northwest. Notable examples are cuisines, cheeses, cat breeds, dog breeds, and horse breeds. Note: Demonyms are given in plural forms. 40. The Ngram charts posted by Mr. Ethnonym Vs. Demonym . Most matches were for the chemical nigeran, and many of the rest were clearly typos for Nigerian. What is the correct way to form a demonym from an acronym? A demonym (/ ˈ d ɛ m ə n ɪ m /; from Greek δῆμος, dêmos, "people, tribe" and όνομα, ónoma, "name") or gentilic (from Latin gentilis, "of a clan, or gens") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, usually derived from the name of the place or that of an ethnic group. With a land area of 1,267,000 km square km, Niger is … It was also, to some extent, the fact that publishers didn't trust their audience to know that any such place as Niger existed. Demonyms are usually in plural form. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Why do we use approximate in the present and estimated in the past? site design / logo © 2021 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. The remaining six instances were far from obviously Niger-related either; but when you're dealing with snippet views, the necessary context can be hard to come by. Since the Ngram charts that show the overwhelming relative frequency of Nigerien don't isolate occurrences of that word as a noun, they aren't terribly relevant to the question of how Nigerois as a noun and Nigerien as a noun match up. There is no adjective or demonym that distinguishes the Republic of Ireland from the entire island of, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, List of adjectival and demonymic forms of place names, List of adjectivals and demonyms for astronomical bodies, List of adjectivals and demonyms for continental regions, List of adjectivals and demonyms for subcontinental regions, List of adjectivals and demonyms for Australia, List of adjectivals and demonyms for Canada, List of adjectivals and demonyms for Cuba, List of adjectivals and demonyms for India, List of adjectivals and demonyms for Malaysia, List of adjectivals and demonyms for Mexico, List of adjectivals and demonyms for New Zealand, List of adjectivals and demonyms for the Philippines, List of adjectivals and demonyms for the United States, List of adjectivals and demonyms for cities, List of adjectivals and demonyms for former regions, List of adjectivals and demonyms for Greco-Roman antiquity, List of adjectivals and demonyms for fictional regions, claimed by the People's Republic of China (PRC), https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/argentinian, https://www.ef.com/wwen/english-resources/english-grammar/nationalities/, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_adjectival_and_demonymic_forms_for_countries_and_nations&oldid=994330191, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 04:08. The only complication hindering Nigerien in its progress toward universal adoption in English is its susceptibility to hard-to-catch typographical error—a practical problem that may keep Nigerois in the New York Times Manual of Style and other style guides for years to come. The NGrams data clearly shows a vast preference for Nigerien. DEMONYM FOR THE NATIVES OF Biafra IS BIAFRUDIAN ;DDEMONYM FOR THE NATIVES OF Biafra IS BIAFRUDIAN. Demonym (/ˈdɛmənɪm/; δῆμος dẽmos 'people, tribe', ὄνομα ónoma 'name') is a recently minted term. I don't think we need to adopt etymological or local usage tests for all exonyms, but surely when there is disagreement such things should factor into decisions? Looking for the abbreviation of Niger? Uzbek is primarily an ethnicity, Uzbekistani relates to citizens of Uzbekistan). A demonym (/ ˈ d ɛ m ə n ɪ m /; from Ancient Greek δῆμος, dêmos, "people, tribe" and ὄνυμα, ónuma, "name") or gentilic (from Latin gentilis, "of a clan, or gens") is a word that identifies a group of people (inhabitants, residents, natives) in relation to a particular place. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Almost certainly the reason Nigeran didn't catch on as the adjective form of Niger is that typos and typesetting mistakes of this very kind were a constant danger. Delta State (recognized on August 27, 1991) is an oil and agricultural producing state in Nigeria.It is situated in the region known as the South-South geo-political zone with a population of 4,112,445 (males: 2,069,309; females: 2,043,136). Note: Demonyms are given in plural forms. Niger is a multi-ethnic country. Find out what is the most common shorthand of Niger on Abbreviations.com! The United States Government Publishing Office (U.S. GPO) published "preferred" demonym for each state. This is the question that came to my mind recently. This is also backed up by the Oxford Learner's Dictionary and Wiktionary. Many place-name adjectives and many demonyms refer also to various other things, sometimes with and sometimes without one or more additional words. Old-schoolers (and, in what an editor there called “something of an oversight,” the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary) still use the archaic Nigerois (nee-zher-WAH); more common and up-to-date is Nigerien (nee-ZHER-yen). Of possible interest is a Wikipedia user page started in 2013. As Vogel 612 observes, both Wikipedia and the online Oxford Learner's Dictionary endorse Nigerien. National Geographic Magazine attributes this term to Merriam-Webster editor Paul Dickson. The Concise Oxford English Dictionary, Revised Tenth Edition (2001), is noncommittal: It includes an entry for the noun Nigerian ("a native or inhabitant of Nigeria") doesn't offer any advice on what to call "a native or inhabitant of Niger.". On the other hand, she failed to notice that, virtually unanimously, the institutional proponents of Nigerois recommend using it only as a noun referring to the people of Niger, not as an adjective. Shiny and New 安宇 that track the word Nigeran are intriguing, but unfortunately they, too, run afoul of a confounding variable—in this case, the water-soluble polymer (or fungal wall glucan) nigeran. More facts about Niger’s economy, culture, military, wildlife etc. Except in cases such as Spain, in which sub-names have been used interchangeably by others, sub-names belonging to some areas in a country are not listed here. The capital is Umuahia, and the major commercial city is Aba, which was formerly a British colonial government outpost in the region, and is also one of the most populated areas in Nigeria.Abia state was created in 1991 from part of Imo State. This is not a forum for general discussion of the article's subject. The current population growth rate is 3.3%, with an average of 7 children per mother. As of 2017, the country has a population of approximately 20.6 million people compared to only 2.4 million in 1950. In Puerto Rico for example, people who come from the town of Bayamón are referred to as "Cowboy(s)" or "Cowgirl(s)"; those from Caguas are referred to as "Criollo(s)" or "Criolla(s)". Did Proto-Indo-European put the adjective before or behind the noun? Abia is a state in the south eastern part of Nigeria. Many other languages such as Spanish do not capitalize demonyms. On the other hand The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage (1999) has this: Nigerois (sing. Click here to start a new topic. Shiny and New 安宇 in his answer), Nigerien dominates current usage. Demonyms are words that are used to identify residents or natives of a particular place. slate.com article which claims to have verified its facts with the Nigerien Embassay in the US, was told by his editor that the NYT style manual prefers, U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual. Adjectives ending in -ish can be used as collective demonyms (e.g. Which is the proper usage: a city name or its demonym? The ending -men has feminine equivalent -women (e.g. the French, the Dutch) provided they are pronounced with a 'ch' sound (e.g. Realistic task for teaching bit operations, Piano notation for student unable to access written and spoken language. Is this simply a terminological difference between U.S. (or North American) English and British English, or is one word truly more appropriate than the other? Here is a list of all the demonyms for African countries. @AndrewLeach I am well aware :) Unfortunately I neither have the experience of the other answerers, so it's near impossible for me to write such all-comprising answers. Niger gets its name from the Niger River, whose name possibly comes from the Berber word "River of Rivers". If a citizen of Nigeria is a Nigerian, what is a citizen of Niger referred to as? Go for 'Nigerian' and everyone thinks you're referring to Nigeria; opt for 'Nigerois' and no one knows what you're talking about; while plumping for plain old 'Niger' just doesn't sound right. This is the talk page for discussing improvements to the Demonym article. What's the earliest treatment of a post-apocalypse, with historical social structures, and remnant AI tech? Do not confuse with Nigeria and Nigerians, for the larger country and its people.). The northern four-fifths of the country is desert, and the southern one-fifth is savanna. Nigeria is not a known character yet, and so their appearance is mostly up to the one depicting them.